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C++语言程序设计(英文版)

作者:郑莉、杨芳、董渊
定价:59
印次:1-2
ISBN:9787302374848
出版日期:2015.06.01
印刷日期:2019.07.26

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The Chinese edition of this book is firstly published in 1999, the second edition is published in 2001, the third edition is published in 2003, and the fourth edition is published in 2010. This English edition is based on the former Chinese editions, which the author took advice widely from readers and colleagues, consulted the latest material and based on his teaching experience to complete. 1. Background of Writing This Book C++ is an objectoriented programming language, which is evolved from C. C++ has two main characteristics: one is its full compatibility with C and the other is that it supports objectoriented methods. The objectoriented program design encapsulates data and related operations together to form an interdependent and indivisible wholeobject. By abstracting common features of objects of the same category, we can get class. Most data in a class can only be processed by the methods encapsulated in the class. A class communicates with the outside world through a simple external interface, and objects communicate with each other through messages. In this way, we can have simple relationships among program modules, and module independency and data security can be ensured. Meanwhile, through inheritance and polymorphism, codes can be well reused, which facilitates both development and maintenance of software. Because of the outstanding qualities of objectoriented methods, they have now become the major ways to develop largescale software, and C++ is one of the most widely used objectoriented programming languages. C++ has long been considered hard to use, and is seldom used as an introduction language to teach. Are C++ and objectoriented program design indeed hard to learn? The answer is no. In fact, when C was firstly created, it was only used by a few professional developers. However, along with the development of computer science, computer technologies have permeated to researches and applications of different subjects. Now C has been widely used by various engineers and technicians, and it has also been used as the introduction programming language in many schools. C++ is fully compatible with C, while it provides stricter and more secure grammars. In this sense, C++ firstly is a better C. C++ is an ObjectOriented Programming (OOP) language. OOP has once been considered as a comparatively advanced technology. This is because that before the theories of ObjectOriented Analysis (OOA) and ObjectOriented Design (OOD) came up, to write a good objectoriented program, programmers should firstly learn to use objectoriented methods to understand and describe problems. Now, since the works of understanding problem domains and designing system components have been done during the phases of system analysis and system design, the work of OOP becomes much easier—it is just to write every component of an OOD model by an objectoriented programming language. The emergence of objectoriented methods is in fact a process that the program design gets back to the roots. Essentially, software development is to correctly understand problems that the software needs to handle and to accurately describe the understandings. The fundamental principle that objectoriented methods emphasize is to develop software directly facing the objective existence, and to apply the ways of human thinking and human expressions to software development. Thus, software development can return back to the real world from the past methods, rules and skills that are extravagantly specialized. Then, do we need to learn C before learning C++? No. Although C++ is evolved from C, C++ itself is an integral programming language, and it has a completely different design philosophy with C. Our learning course needs not to exactly follow the development course of science technology. Only by mastering the latest theories and technologies quickly can we stand on giant’s shoulders. Thus, we think that C++ can be used as an introduction programming language to learn. 2. Features of This Book This book is comprehensive, tries to explain problems in simple terms, and has abundant complementary materials. This book is for programmer beginners. Since the publication of the first editionis in 1999, the book has been used by different majors in many universities including Tsinghua University, and has got good effects. Using C++ as the introduction programming language for college students, this book not only details the language itself, but also introduces data structures, algorithms, objectoriented design ideas, programming, and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). In each chapter of this book, we firstly introduce the related objectoriented programming ideas and methods, and then expound the necessary grammar through practical examples, explaining its meaning and usage primarily from the aspect of the programming methodology. The purpose of this book is to make readers be able not only to master the C++ language itself, but also to use computer languages to describe simple practical problems and their solutions. However, to describe complex problems, readers still have to learn other objectoriented courses such as objectoriented software engineering. As a book for programmer beginners, this book aims at explaining complicated subjects in simple terms. 3. Content Abstract Chapter 1Introduction From a development perspective, this chapter firstly introduces the history and the characteristics of objectoriented programming language, as well as the origin and the primary basic concepts of objectoriented methods. Then it makes a brief introduction on objectoriented software engineering. Finally, the chapter takes a look at how information is represented and stored in computers and the development procedure of programs. Chapter 2Elementary C++ Programming This chapter focuses on the basic knowledge of C++ programming. It firstly introduces the history and the characteristics of the C++ language, then it discusses the basic elements that construct a C++ statement—character sets, keywords, identifiers, and operators etc. The chapter also introduces basic data types and userdefined data types in C++, and three main control structures in algorithms: sequential, case and loop structures. Chapter 3Functions This chapter focuses on the functions in C++. In objectoriented programming, function is the basic unit of module division, the basic abstract unit of problemsolving processes, and also the abstract of functionalities. Using functions offers support for code reuse. From an application perspective, this chapter mainly introduces the definitions and usages of various functions, especially the usages of system functions. Chapter 4Class and Object This chapter firstly introduces the basic idea of objectoriented program design and its main characteristics: abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism. Then, revolving around encapsulation, the chapter focuses on the core concept of objectoriented methods—class, including the definition and the implementation of class, and how to use class to solve practical problems. Finally, it briefly introduces how to use Unified Modeling Language (UML) to describe the characteristics of class. Later chapters will always use UML to describe the relationships between class and object. Chapter 5Data Sharing and Protecting This chapter introduces the scope and the visibility of identifiers, and the lifetime of variables and objects. We can see how to use local variables, global variables, data members of classes, static members of classes, and friends to achieve data sharing and protection of shared data. Finally, the chapter introduces how to use multifile structures to organize and write programs to solve complex problems. Chapter 6Arrays, Pointers and Strings This chapter focuses on arrays, pointers and strings. Array and pointer are the most commonly used compound (structure) data types. They are the primary means by which we organize and represent data and objects, and are the useful tools to manipulate math operations. This chapter firstly introduces the basic concepts of arrays and pointers, and discusses the dynamic memory allocation. Then, revolving around the organization issues of data and objects, the chapter focuses on how to use arrays and pointers to link and coordinate data, functions and objects. Finally, the chapter introduces the concept of string and two methods to process strings: using character arrays and using the class string. Chapter 7Inheritance and Derivation This chapter focuses on the inheritance characteristic of class. Revolving around the derivation process, the chapter primarily discusses the access control issues of base class members under different inheritance modes, as well as how to add constructor and destructor in a derived class. Then, the chapter discusses the issues of unique identification and access of class members in comparatively complex inheritance relations. Finally, the chapter gives two instances of class inheritance—“Use Complete Gaussian Pivoting Elimination Method to Solve Linear Equations” and “Personnel Information Management Program for a Small Company”. Chapter 8Polymorphism This chapter introduces another important characteristic of class—polymorphism. Polymorphism refers to that a same message can result in different actions when received by different kinds of objects. Polymorphism is a reabstract of specific function members of a class. C++ supports many forms of polymorphism, and the main forms include overloading (include function overloading and operator overloading) and virtual functions, which are also the learning focus. Finally, the chapter gives two instances of class polymorphism—“VariableStep Trapezoid Integral Algorithm” and “Improvement of Personnel Information Management Program for a Small Company”. Chapter 9Collections and the Organization of Collection Data A collection refers to a set of data elements. Collections can be divided into two main categories: linear collections and nonlinear collections. This chapter mainly introduces some commonly used collection class templates. The organization issues of collection data refers to the sorting and the searching methods of the data elements in a collection. Sorting is also called classification or reorganization. It is a process of making an unordered array ordered. Searching is the process of finding specific data elements in an array by some specific method. Chapter 10Generic Programming and Standard Template Library Generic Programming is to write programs as general as possible without loss of efficiency. This chapter briefly introduces some concepts and terms that C++ Standard Template Library (STL) involves, as well as the structure of STL and the usage of its primary components. We focus on the basic applications of containers, iterators, algorithms and function objects, in order to give readers a conceptual understanding of STL and generic programming. Chapter 11I/O Stream Library and Input/Output This chapter introduces the concept of stream, as well as the structure and usage of the stream library. Like C, there is no Input/Output statement in C++. However, the compiler of C++ has an objectoriented I/O software packet which is the I/O stream library. Chapter 12Exception Handling This chapter focuses on the exception handling. Exception is a kind of programdefined errors. In C++, exception handling refers to a set of implementation mechanisms that handles predicted errors in the runtime of programs. Try, throw and catch statements are the mechanisms in C++ to implement exception handling. With exception handling of C++, programs can deliver unexpected events to execution contexts of higher levels, and thus to better recover from these exceptions. 4. Users Guide and Related Resources The author assigns 32 class hours for teaching with this book, 32 class hours for experiments, and 32 class hours for computer practices outside class. Thus, there are 96 class hours in and out of class, and each class hour has 45 minutes. We recommend distributing the teaching hours as follows: Chapter 1: 2 class hours; Chapter 2: 4 class hours; Chapter 3: 2 class hours; Chapter 4: 4 class hours; Chapter 5: 2 class hours; Chapter 6: 4 class hours; Chapter 7: 4 class hours; Chapter 8: 2 class hours; Chapter 9: 4 class hours; Chapter 10: 2 class hours; Chapter 11: 1 class hour; Chapter 12: 1 class hour. The readers can download the learning resources from the Tsinghua University Press Web site. 5. Acknowledgement In the Chinese version of this book, Chapters 1~3, 9, 11 and 12 are written by Zheng Li; Chapters 4~8 are written by Dong Yuan, Zheng Li and Zhang Ruifeng; Chapter 10 is written by Zhang Ruifeng and Zheng Li. Yang Fang rewrite the book in English based on the Chinese version. Besides, Zhou Zhiwei, Dai Nike, Wang Jing, Shan Liang, Mai Haohui, Liu Yintao, Xu Chen, Fu Shixing, Tian Rongpai, Meng Hongli, Meng Wei, Zhang Wenju, Yang Xingpeng and Wang Xuan participated in parts of the writing work. Thanks readers for using this book, any criticisms and suggestions are warmly welcomed. With your reply please specify your email address. The email addresses of the author is: zhengli@tsinghua.edu.cn.Contents Chapter 1Introduction1

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  • Chapter 1Introduction1

    1.1The Development of Computer Programming Language1

    1.1.1Machine Language and Assembly Language1

    1.1.2Highlevel Language2

    1.1.3Objectoriented Language2

    1.2Objectoriented Method3

    1.2.1The Origin of Objectoriented Method3

    1.2.2Basic Concepts of Objectoriented 5

    1.3Objectoriented Software Development6

    1.3.1Analysis7

    1.3.2Design7

    1.3.3Programming7

    1.3.4Test7

    1.3.5Maintenance8

    1.4Representation and Storage of Information8

    1.4.1Digital System of Computer8

    1.4.2Conversions among Numeral Systems10

    1.4.3Storage Units of Information13

    1.4.4Binarycoded Representation13

    1.4.5Fixed Point Number and Floating Point Number17

    1.4.6The Number Range That Can B...

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