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自然的音符:118种化学元素的故事

化学老师也在读来自Nature Chemistry 100余位世界科学家/118种化学元素/120篇文章,金涌院士/中国化学会/中国化工学会推荐阅读的化学元素科普书

作者:[英]施普林格·自然旗下的自然科研(Nature Research, part of Springer Nature)编 Nature自然科研 编译
定价:98
印次:1-2
ISBN:9787302541868
出版日期:2020.02.01
印刷日期:2020.06.04

《自然的音符:118种化学元素的故事》由Nature科研译自《自然-化学》(Nature Chemistry)In Your Element专栏。是所有图书中为数不多的,覆盖当前全部已发现的118种化学元素的科普图书,每一种元素都是邀请世界上对它研究最为深入的科学家之一撰写,专业权威,生动有趣。适合中学生及以上所有对化学元素感兴趣的读者阅读。本书由Nature Chemistry高级编辑作序。

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搴? Preface 銆婅嚜鐒?鍖栧銆嬶紙Nature Chemistry锛? 浠?009骞?鏈堢殑鍒涘垔鍙峰紑濮嬶紝鍗? 骞翠互鏉ユ瘡鏈熺殑鏈€鍚庝竴椤甸兘灞炰簬鈥淚n Your Element鈥濊繖涓笓鏍忥紝璇ヤ笓鏍? 姣忔湡浠嬬粛涓€绉嶅寲瀛﹀厓绱犫€斺€旇繖浜涘厓 绱犲氨鍍忕Н鏈ㄥ潡涓€鏍锋瀯鎴愪簡鎴戜滑鍛ㄥ洿 鐨勪竴鍒囩墿璐ㄣ€傜洰鍓嶅凡鐭ョ殑鍏冪礌鏈? 118绉嶏紝鍙﹀鎴戜滑涔熶粙缁嶄簡涓ょ鐩? 褰撶壒鍒殑姘㈠悓浣嶇礌锛氭皹鍜屾皻銆傝繖灏? 鏄锛岃涓撴爮寮€鍔炰簡鏁存暣10骞达紝寤? 缁?20鏈燂紝骞跺垰濂藉湪2019骞?鏈? 姝e紡缁撴潫锛屾伆閫㈠浗闄呭厓绱犲懆鏈熻〃骞? 锛坔ttps://www.iypt2019.org/锛夆€斺€旀棬 鍦ㄧ邯蹇靛痉绫崇壒閲屄烽棬鎹峰垪澶紙Dmitri Mendeleev锛夋棭鏈熺増鏈殑鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡 Starting in the inaugural issue of Nature Chemistry in April 2009 and throughout its first ten years, the last page of each month鈥檚 journal was occupied by the 鈥業n Your Element鈥?(IYE) column, which explored 鈥?one element at a time 鈥? the building blocks that make up everything around us. There are currently 118 known elements, and we also included the two rather special isotopes of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium. This means that the IYE feature happened to run for exactly ten years, spanning 120 issues of the journal. With fortuitous timing, it came to an end in March 2019 during the International Year of the Periodic Table (https://www. iypt2019.org/), which celebrates II 鑷劧鐨勯煶绗︼細118绉嶅寲瀛﹀厓绱犵殑鏁呬簨 琛ㄩ棶涓?50鍛ㄥ勾锛屽厓绱犲懆鏈熻〃澶ф 宸叉垚涓哄寲瀛︽渶鏅亶鐨勮薄寰佷箣涓€銆? 鏈功鏄涓撴爮120绡囨枃绔犵殑鍚? 闆嗐€傝捣鍒濓紝杩欎簺鏂囩珷骞舵棤鍥哄畾妯″紡锛? 鍙槸涓轰簡鍒嗕韩鍏冪礌鐨勬晠浜嬶紝鏃㈠闀? 瑙佽瘑锛屽張瀵撴暀浜庝箰銆傝繖浜涙枃绔犵补闆? 浜嗗悇绉嶇弽闂荤墖娈碉紝鍖呮嫭鍏冪礌鐨勫巻鍙? 璁拌堪銆佽瘝婧愬鎰忎箟銆佸寲瀛︾壒鎬у拰鐩? 鍏崇殑涓汉杞朵簨绛夈€備竴璺蛋鏉ワ紝鎴戜滑 涔熶簡瑙e埌寰堝鍏充簬鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡琛ㄥ強鍏? 鍐呭鐨勭煡璇嗭紝鎵€鑾峰尓娴呫€? 鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡琛ㄧ湅璧锋潵鐩稿绠€鍗曪紝 鎵€鏈夌殑鍏冪礌閮芥寜鍘熷瓙搴忔暟閫掑鎺掑垪锛? 鎺掑垪鏈夊簭鐨勮鍜屽垪鍙嶆槧浜嗗厓绱犲寲瀛? 鎬ц川鐨勭浉浼兼€у拰閫掑彉瓒嬪娍銆備粖澶╀汉 浠垨璁稿緢瀹规槗璁や负鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡琛ㄧ悊褰? 濡傛銆傜劧鑰岋紝杩欏紶鎴戜滑閮界啛鎮夌殑琛? 鏍煎嵈鏄敱浼楀绉戝瀹剁厼璐硅嫤蹇冦€佸嚑 缁忓姫鍔涙墠瀹屾垚鐨勩€傚敖绠¢棬鎹峰垪澶 鏅亶璁や负鏄厓绱犲懆鏈熻〃鐨勭紨閫犺€咃紝 浣嗗彂鐜板厓绱犵墿鐞嗘垨鍖栧鎬ц川鐨勫懆鏈? 鎬э紝骞惰瘯鍥句互鍏锋湁绉戝鎰忎箟鐨勬柟寮? 鎺掑垪瀹冧滑鐨勮繕鏈夊叾浠栦汉锛岄棬鎹峰垪澶? 鐢氳嚦涓嶆槸绗竴涓繖鏍峰仛鐨勪汉銆備絾鏄? 浠栧湪1869骞存彁鍑虹殑鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡琛ㄦ湁 鍏剁嫭鐗逛箣澶勶細鍦ㄥ垪鍏ュ綋鏃跺凡鐭ョ殑63 绉嶅厓绱犱箣澶栵紝浠栬繕涓轰竴浜涗粬璁や负宸? the 150th anniversary of Dmitri Mendeleev鈥檚 early version of the chart that would become one of the most ubiquitous emblems of chemistry. This book is the collection of these 120 IYE essays. From the very beginning there was no set formula for these articles; they were simply intended to be informative and entertaining stories about an element. They gather together a wide variety of snippets, ranging from historical and etymological accounts to chemical characteristics to personal anecdotes, and we have learnt a great deal about the periodic table, and its content, along the way. With its relatively simple appearance 鈥?all of the elements catalogued in order of increasing atomic number, arranged in neat rows and columns that reflect similarities and trends in their behaviour 鈥?it鈥檚 perhaps easy today to take the periodic table for granted. Yet the familiar chart has been painstakingly shaped by the work of many scientists. Although Mendeleev is widely recognized as the creator of the periodic table, he wasn鈥檛 the only one 鈥?or even the first one 鈥?to have noticed a periodicity in the elements鈥?physical or chemical behaviour, and to attempt to arrange them in a III 搴?/ Preface 瀛樺湪浣嗗皻鏈鍙戠幇鐨勫厓绱犵暀浜嗙┖浣嶃€? 鍏朵腑涓€浜涒€滅己澶扁€濈殑鍏冪礌纭疄鍦ㄥ嚑 骞翠箣鍐呰闄嗙画鍙戠幇锛屽叾鐗规€т笌闂ㄦ嵎 鍒楀か鍦ㄦ帓鍒楀畠浠殑浣嶇疆鏃舵墍棰勬祴鐨? 闈炲父鐩歌繎锛岃繖鏋佸ぇ鍦板鍔犱簡浠栨墍鎻? 鍑虹殑鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡鎺掑垪鏂瑰紡鐨勫彲淇″害銆? 鐒惰€岋紝濉ˉ鏈€鍚庝竴涓厓绱犵┖浣嶈姳浜? 杩?0骞寸殑鏃堕棿锛岃€屼笖鏄互涓€绉嶅畬鍏? 涓嶅悓鐨勫厓绱犲彂鐜版柟寮忓畬鎴愮殑锛氫綅浜? 鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡琛╠鍖轰腑闂寸殑楂樻斁灏勬€у厓 绱犻敐骞朵笉鏄湪鑷劧鐣屼腑鍙戠幇鐨勶紝鑰? 鏄?937骞寸粡浜哄伐鍚堟垚鍒跺緱骞舵渶缁? 鑾峰緱纭銆? 鏈変簺鍏冪礌琚彂鐜板悗鏈€鍒濇浘闅句互 褰掔被锛岃繖鎺ㄥ姩浜嗗厓绱犲懆鏈熻〃鐨勬墿灞曘€? 渚嬪锛屾蔼銆佹皷鍜屾皺绛夌█鏈夋皵浣撳湪鐭? 鐭嚑鍛ㄥ唴鐩哥户琚彂鐜帮紝浣嗗湪闂ㄦ嵎鍒? 澶殑鍛ㄦ湡琛ㄤ笂鍗村ソ浜涘勾娌℃湁瀹冧滑鐨? 浣嶇疆锛岀洿鍒?902骞达紝浜轰滑鎵嶆壂娓? 鐤戞儜灏嗗畠浠垪鍏ヨ〃涓€傚彟涓€涓噸澶? 璋冩暣鍙戠敓鍦?0涓栫邯40骞翠唬涓湡锛? 鏍间鸡路瑗垮崥鏍硷紙Glenn Seaborg锛夊皢 閿曠郴鍏冪礌鐨勪綅缃Щ鍒伴暓绯诲厓绱犱笅闈紝 杩欐閲嶆帓寮曞绉戝瀹朵滑鍙戠幇浜嗛搥涔? 鍚庣殑鍏冪礌銆? 鎴戜滑鎵€鐔熸倝鐨勫厓绱犲懆鏈熻〃骞堕潪 涓€鎴愪笉鍙樸€傛垜浠笓鏍忕殑鏂囩珷鏇捐杩? manner that made scientific sense. But his 1869 version exhibited noteworthy features: it included all the 63 then-known elements as well as several gaps for elements that he believed existed but hadn鈥檛 yet been discovered. Some of those 鈥榤issing鈥? elements did indeed turn up within a matter of years 鈥?and exhibited properties that closely matched the ones Mendeleev had predicted based on their location in the table, lending great credibility to his periodic placement. It would take nearly 7 decades, however, to fill the last of his blank tiles, in a manner that would represent a fundamental departure in element discovery: rather than being found in nature, technetium 鈥?a highly radioactive element in the middle of the d- block 鈥?was created artificially and finally identified in 1937. The discovery of some other elements initially caused classification problems, and prompted expansions of the table. The noble gases for example 鈥?of which krypton, neon and xenon were discovered within just weeks of each other 鈥?had no place on Mendeleev鈥檚 chart for several puzzling years until they were finally given their own column in 1902. Another major adjustment came in the mid-1940s when Glenn Seaborg moved the actinide series 鑷劧鐨勯煶绗︼細118绉嶅寲瀛﹀厓绱犵殑鏁呬簨 浜轰滑濡備綍灏辩3鍓棌鍏冪礌鐨勬帓鍒楀睍 寮€浜嗘寔缁笉鏂殑浜夎鈥斺€旈暓鍜岄敃锛? 鎴栬€呴暐鍜岄摴鏄惁搴斾綅浜庨挭鍜岄拠涔? 涓嬶紵閾瑰彲鍚﹁璁や负鏄痯鍖哄厓绱狅紵 绋€鍦熺殑鍙戠幇鍙皳瓒d簨杩炶繛锛堣櫧 鐒跺悕涓甫鈥滅█鈥濓紝浣嗗湪鍦板3涓叾瀹炲苟 涓嶉偅涔堢█鏈夛紝鍏朵腑鏈€甯歌鐨勭█鍦熷厓 绱犻搱鐨勫偍閲忓嚑涔庡拰閾滀竴鏍蜂赴瀵岋級銆傜害 缈奥峰姞澶氭灄锛圝ohan Gadolin锛夋浘鐚? 娴嬫湁涓€绉嶆柊鍏冪礌瀛樺湪锛屽嵈鍥犱负鎷呭績 绋€鍦熷厓绱犱細鈥滆秺鏉ヨ秺澶氣€濓紝鑰屼笉鎰挎剰 鎵胯锛岃鍏冪礌鐜拌绉颁负閽嗐€?843骞达紝 鍗″皵路鑾寰凤紙Carl Mosander锛変负 浜嗗鎵句袱绉嶆柊鍏冪礌锛屽姘у寲閾掑拰姘? 鍖栭摻杩涜浜嗗垎鏋愶紝浣嗘槸鍥犱负澶辫鑰? 娣锋穯浜嗕袱绉嶇熆鐗╃殑鏍锋湰锛屸€滈槾宸槼閿欌€? 鍦板鑷翠粬浠庢哀鍖栭摻涓垎绂诲嚭浜嗛搾锛? 浠庢哀鍖栭搾涓垎绂诲嚭浜嗛摻锛屽悗鏉ヤ袱绉? 鐭跨墿鐨勫悕绉版墠琚洿鎹㈣繃鏉ャ€? 涓撴爮鐨勬枃绔犱篃缁忓父寮曠粡鎹吀銆? 渚嬪锛屼娇鐢ㄢ€滄棦鏄瘏鍜掞紝涔熸槸绁? 绂忊€濇潵褰㈠闀濆厓绱狅紝杩欐槸鍊熺敤銆婅尪 鑺卞コ銆嬩腑鏈夊叧鐖辨儏鐨勬弿杩帮紱鑺傞€夐瞾 寰蜂簹寰仿峰悏鍗滄灄锛圧udyard Kipling锛? 銆婂喎閾併€嬩竴璇楃殑娈佃惤锛涘紩鐢ㄥ剴鍕捖峰嚒 灏旂撼锛圝ules Verne锛夌殑钁椾綔鈥斺€斾粬 鍦ㄤ功涓浘棰勮灏嗘按鈥滃垎瑙f垚瀹冪殑缁? below that of the lanthanides; this placement would guide scientists to the discovery of elements beyond uranium. The table as we know it is still not set in stone. The IYE essays tell of an on-going debate on the occupancy of group 3 鈥?should lanthanum and actinium, or lutetium and lawrencium, sit below scandium and yttrium? Can lawrencium even be considered a p-block element? The rare earths proved to be a trove of discovery quirks (despite their name these elements aren鈥檛 all that rare in the Earth鈥檚 crust; the most common one, cerium, is nearly as abundant as copper). Johan Gadolin, for example, guessed the existence of a new element, albeit reluctantly as he feared the rare earths were 鈥榖ecoming far too numerous鈥?鈥?this very element is now known as gadolinium. A blunder caused some confusion between two minerals: in 1843 Carl Mosander analysed erbia and terbia in search of two new elements. A mix-up in his samples, however, meant that he had isolated erbium from terbia and terbium from erbia; the minerals鈥?names were subsequently swapped. The IYE essays also feature poetic passages: a description of dysprosium 鈥?a curse and a blessing 鈥?that is borrowed from 搴?/ Preface 鎴愬厓绱犫€濅綔涓虹噧鏂欎娇鐢紝杩樿禐鎵簡 鏇剧粡涓€搴︽瘮榛勯噾杩樼弽璐电殑杞婚噾灞為摑銆? 寰堝鏈夊叧p鍖哄厓绱犵殑鎻忚堪浼氳 浜轰笉瀵掕€屾牀锛屽洜涓鸿繖浜涘厓绱犳樉鐒跺叿 鏈夋瘨鎬э紝鍏舵棭鏈熶娇鐢ㄥ彈鍒颁簡闄愬埗锛? 濡傜伀鏌翠腑鐨勭7瀵艰嚧宸ヤ汉鍙戠敓鈥滅7姣? 鎬ч楠ㄥ潖姝烩€濓紝姹炰細寮曡捣鐜拌绉颁负 鈥滅柉甯界梾鈥濈殑绁炵粡绱婁贡锛岃繕鏈夊氨鏄搮 鍖栧悎鐗╋紙濡傗€滈搮绯栤€濓級琚箍娉涘湴浣跨敤銆? 鐩告瘮涔嬩笅锛岄搵鐢变簬姣掓€ц緝浣庯紝鍦ㄩ噸 閲戝睘涓樉寰楁湁浜涙牸鏍间笉鍏ャ€傜劧鑰岋紝 鍦ㄩ搵鐨勫乏杈癸紝鍙殧浜嗕竴涓富鏃忕殑鍚? 涓€鍛ㄦ湡鐨勯搳锛屽嵈鏄彿绉扳€滆尪鏉姇姣? 鑰呪€?锛坱eacup poisoner锛夌殑鑻卞浗杩炵幆 鏉€鎵嬬殑棣栭€夋鍣紝鎴栬杩欎竴鍏冪礌鏈? 涓嶅簲璇ヨ鍙戠幇銆? 涓€浜涗細鍙戝厜鐨勬斁灏勬€у厓绱犳棦璇? 浜轰篃寰堝嵄闄┿€傞暛鏈€鍒濊绉颁綔涓€绉嶇 濂囩殑鍏冪礌锛岃鎾掑埌鍚勭涓滆タ閲岄潰锛? 鍖呮嫭姘淬€侀鐗┿€佸寲濡嗗搧绛夛紙澶ф鏄? 鐢变簬瀹冮槾宸槼閿欏湴鑳戒娇鐨偆鐒曞彂鍏? 褰╃殑缂樻晠锛夈€傜幇鍦紝鏀惧皠鎬у厓绱犲凡鍙? 浠ュ畨鍏ㄥ湴鐢ㄤ簬鍚勭鐢ㄩ€旓紝浠庡師瀛愰挓 鍒板湴璐ㄥ勾浠f祴瀹氱瓑銆傚嚭涔庢剰鏂欑殑鏄紝 鏈変簺杩樺彲浠ヨ交鏄撲拱鍒帮紝姣斿鐑熼浘鎺? 娴嬪櫒涓娇鐢ㄧ殑闀呭厓绱犲拰鏃犵數姹犲喎鍏? 瑁呯疆涓殑姘氬厓绱犮€? that of love in La Traviata; a stanza from a poem by Rudyard Kipling entitled 'Cold iron'; and excerpts from Jules Verne鈥檚 books in which he had foreseen the use of water as a fuel 鈥榙ecomposed into its primitive elements鈥? and written in praise of aluminium 鈥?a light metal that was once more precious than gold. There are quite a few unnerving accounts of early uses of p-block elements that were curbed when toxicity issues became painfully obvious: phosphorus in matches that plagued workers with a bone necrosis called 鈥榩hossy jaw鈥? mercury causing the neurological disorder now known as 鈥榤ad hatter鈥? disease; the ubiquitous use of lead compounds (including one dubbed 鈥榣ead sugar鈥?. In contrast, bismuth is a bit of an oddity among the heavy metals owing to its low toxicity. Only two tiles to the left, though, sits thallium 鈥?the weapon of choice of an English serial killer nicknamed the 鈥榯eacup poisoner鈥? and an element that should perhaps have remained altogether undiscovered. A number of glowing, radioactive elements also proved dangerously alluring. Initially purported to be a wonder element, radium used to be sprinkled into everything from water to food to cosmetics (presumably making skin glow for all the wrong reasons). 鑷劧鐨勯煶绗︼細118绉嶅寲瀛﹀厓绱犵殑鏁呬簨 涓€浜涢噸鍏冪礌鐨勫彂鐜板厖婊′簡浜? 璁€傝繖浜涗簤璁槸濡傛婵€鐑堬紝鐢氳嚦琚? 绉颁负鈥滆秴闀勫厓绱犳垬浜夆€濓紙transfer- mium wars锛夛紝涓烘杩樻垚绔嬩簡鐗? 鍒鍛樹細鈥斺€旇秴闀勫厓绱犲伐浣滅粍 锛圱ransfermium Working Group锛夛紝 鍘昏鍐充簤绔拰鍚嶇О褰掑睘銆傞偅浜涘湪鍏? 绱犲懆鏈熻〃鍙充笅瑙掔殑鍏冪礌锛屽湪瀹屽叏姝? 甯哥殑鏉′欢涓嬶紝鍙互閫氳繃璁╁師瀛愭牳鐩? 浜掓挒鍑讳互璇卞鍏剁煭鏆傜幇韬紝杩欓渶瑕? 浣跨敤鐪嬩技鐩存帴鍑鸿嚜绉戝够灏忚鐨勮澶囷紝 浠ュ強鏋佸ぇ鐨勮€愬績銆傞櫎浜嗛晞涔嬪锛屽師 瀛愭牳鏃犳硶浠ュ彲绉伴噸鐨勬暟閲忓埗澶囥€備絾 绉戝瀹朵滑骞舵病鏈夊氨姝ゆ斁寮冿紝鑰屾槸鐮? 鍙戜簡鐗规畩鐨勫疄楠屾妧鏈紝渚嬪鈥滀竴娆? 涓€涓師瀛愨€濆寲瀛︼紙one-atom-at-a-time chemistry锛夈€傚厓绱犳悳瀵昏€呬滑鐩墠姝? 鍦ㄧ簿蹇冨埗浣滄洿閲嶇殑鍘熷瓙鏍革紝浠栦滑鍦? 浜哄伐鍚堟垚鏂归潰鐨勪换浣曟垚鍔熼兘灏嗘樉钁? 鏀瑰彉鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡琛ㄧ殑褰㈢姸锛屽洜涓虹幇鍦? 鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡琛ㄧ殑7琛岀浉浼煎厓绱犲凡娌℃湁 浠讳綍绌虹櫧鍙~浜嗐€? 鍐嶇湅鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡琛ㄧ殑鍙︿竴绔紝鏈? 浜涘厓绱犲疄闄呬笂宸茬粡瀛樺湪浜嗗緢涔呫€備緥 濡傦紝姘㈠拰姘﹀湪瀹囧畽澶х垎鐐稿悗澶х害38 涓囧勾渚垮嚭鐜颁簡銆傛哀鍦ㄧ敓鍛界殑璧锋簮鍜? 婕斿寲涓捣鐫€鍏抽敭鐨勪綔鐢紝姘垯鍦ㄥ Radioactive elements now safely serve a variety of purposes from atomic clocks to geological dating. Some can also be purchased surprisingly easily: americium in smoke detectors and tritium in battery-free luminescent gadgets. The stories of some of the heavier elements are replete with discovery disputes. The controversies were so fierce that they are referred to as 鈥榯ransfermium wars鈥?and a special committee, the Transfermium Working Group, was created to adjudicate claims and attribute names. Those elements at the bottom right corner of the periodic table can 鈥?under exactly the right conditions, using equipment that seem straight out of science fiction, and with a lot of patience 鈥?be coaxed into fleeting existence by smashing nuclei into each other. Beyond fermium, nuclei cannot be prepared in weighable quantities. Undeterred, scientists have developed special experimental techniques: there is such a thing as one-atom-at-a-time chemistry. Element hunters are currently working on crafting ever heavier nuclei; any synthetic success will prompt a noticeable change in the shape of the periodic table, as there are no blank tiles left on its seven familiar rows. At the other end of the spectrum 搴?/ Preface 鏁版儏鍐典笅鏀稿叧鐢熸銆傞晬銆侀搧鍜岀~琚? 璁や负鏄棭鏈熺敓鍛藉舰寮忔墍浣跨敤鐨勭墿璐紝 鑰屼粖澶╁ぇ澶氭暟鐢熺墿鍒欎緷璧栭搧鍏冪礌銆? 鍙︿竴绉嶈繃娓¢噾灞為摫锛屽叾姘у寲鎬佽寖鍥? 鎭板阀鏄凡鐭ユ渶骞跨殑锛堜粠鈥?浠峰埌+9 浠凤級锛屽畠鑳戒负瀵绘壘鎭愰緳鐏粷鐨勫師鍥犳彁 渚涚嚎绱€? 涓撴爮鐨勬枃绔犲睍鐜颁簡鍏冪礌鍛ㄦ湡琛? 鐨勬繁搴﹀拰骞垮害锛屾垜浠潪甯告劅璋㈠骞? 鏉ヤ负涓撴爮鍐欑鐨勬墍鏈変綔鑰呫€傛垜浠崄 鍒嗗枩娆㈣繖涓笓鏍忥紝甯屾湜浣犱篃涓€鏍枫€? 瀹夊Ξ路纰у皻鍗氬+ 銆婅嚜鐒?鍖栧銆嬮珮绾х紪杈? there are elements that have essentially been around for ever. Hydrogen and helium, for example, appeared only around 380,000 years after the Big Bang. Oxygen played a key role in the origin and evolution of life and nitrogen is intimately implicated in most matters of life and death. Nickel, iron and sulfur are thought to have been used by early forms of life; today most living organisms rely on iron. Another transition metal, iridium 鈥? which incidentally adopts the widest known range of oxidation states (from .3 to +9) 鈥?can provide clues as to why the dinosaurs died out. The IYE articles have reflected the depth and breadth of the periodic table, and we are extremely grateful to all the writers who have contributed to this feature over the years. We have thoroughly enjoyed it, and we hope you do too. Dr. Anne Pichon Senior Editor, Nature Chemistry 娉細鏈簭瑷€涓昏鍩轰簬2019骞? 鏈堛€婅嚜鐒?鍖栧銆嬫潅蹇楀彂琛ㄧ殑棰樹负 銆婁竴涓厓绱犳椂浠g殑缁堢粨銆嬬殑绀捐銆? Note: this preface is largely based on the editorial published in the March 2019 issue of Nature Chemistry, entitled 鈥楨nd of an elemental era鈥?

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    閾嶆洿鏄庝寒鐨勬湭鏉?/ 18

    纭肩殑閿悎 / 21

    纰崇殑鍥涗釜涓栫晫 / 25

    鐢熸鐪嬫爱 / 28

    姘т箣婧?/ 32

    姘熷厜鏅収/ 35

    闇撹櫣鐏悗鐨勬皷/ 39

    閽犵殑绠€杩? 42

    闀佸厜涓€闂? 45

    閾濈殑榄呭姏/ 48

    椋炶穬灞辫胺鐨勭/ 51

    鏈夊杽鏈夋伓纾蜂箣鐢? 54

    纭殑榄呭姏/ 58

    姘殑缂栧勾鍙? 61

    浠庣┖姘斾腑鎻愬彇鐨勬癌/ 64

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